Pull request helpersSource:
So, you want to contribute to an R package? That’s fantastic!
Here we walk through the process of making a so-called pull request to the praise package. This package is designed to help package developers “build friendly R packages that praise their users if they have done something good, or they just need it to feel better.” You can use praise to construct encouraging feedback by sampling from its collection of positive adjectives, adverbs, verbs, smileys, and exclamations:
We are going to propose a new adjective: “formidable”.
A pull request is how you propose a change to a GitHub repository. Think of it as a request for the maintainer to pull your changes into their repo.
pr_*() family of functions is designed to make working with GitHub pull requests as painless as possible, for both contributors and package maintainers. They are designed to support the Git and GitHub workflows recommended in Happy Git and GitHub for the useR.
A pull request (PR) involves two players, a contributor and a reviewer. To make it more clear who runs which code, the code chunks in this article are color coded: code executed by the contributor appears in chunks with light gray background and code executed by the reviewer appears in chunks with beige background.
# contributor code
# reviewer code
This article assumes that you have already done the Git and GitHub parts of the setup vignette and that you have configured a GitHub personal access token, as described in Managing Git(Hub) Credentials. A good way to check that you are ready to use the
pr_* family of functions is to run
git_sitrep(), which prints info about your current Git, gert, and GitHub setup.
pr_*() functions make use of:
- The GitHub API, which requires a personal access token (PAT).
create_github_token()helps you set one up.
- Your preferred Git transport protocol:
- If usethis can’t figure this out, it might ask you. You can set the
usethis.protocoloption to proactively address this.
- If usethis can’t figure this out, it might ask you. You can set the
- gert, an R package which does Git operations from R. The gert package, in turn, relies on the credentials package to obtain your Git credentials.
- If you use the
"https"protocol, your GitHub PAT is the only credential you need. Which is a good reason to choose
- If you use the
All the code below assumes you’ve attached usethis in your R session:
The first step is to fork the source repository, to get your own copy on GitHub, and then clone that, to get your own local copy. There are many ways to accomplish these two steps, but here we demonstrate
#> ℹ Defaulting to 'https' Git protocol #> ✓ Setting `fork = TRUE` #> ✓ Creating '/Users/mine/Desktop/praise/' #> ✓ Forking 'rladies/praise' #> ✓ Cloning repo from 'https://github.com/mine-cetinkaya-rundel/praise.git' into '/Users/mine/Desktop/praise' #> ✓ Setting active project to '/Users/mine/Desktop/praise' #> ℹ Default branch is 'master' #> ✓ Adding 'upstream' remote: 'https://github.com/rladies/praise.git' #> ✓ Pulling in changes from default branch of the source repo 'upstream/master' #> ✓ Setting remote tracking branch for local 'master' branch to 'upstream/master' #> ✓ Opening '/Users/mine/Desktop/praise/' in new RStudio session #> ✓ Setting active project to '<no active project>'
What this does:
- Forks the praise repo, owned by rladies on GitHub, into your GitHub account.
- Clones your praise repo into a folder named “praise” on your desktop (or similar).
originremote is set to your praise repo.
- Does additional Git setup:
upstreamremote is set to the praise repo owned by rladies.
masterbranch is set to track
upstream/master, so you can pull upstream changes in the future.
- Opens a new instance of RStudio in the praise project, if you’re working in RStudio. Otherwise, switches your current R session to that project.
Arguments you might like to know about:
fork = TRUEor
fork = FALSEif you don’t want to defer to the default behaviour.
destdirto put praise in a specific location on your computer. You can set the
usethis.destdiroption if you always want usethis to put new projects in a specific directory.
We start the process of contributing to the package with
pr_init(), which creates a branch in our repository for the pull request. It is a good idea to make your pull requests from a feature branch, not from the repo’s default branch, which is
master here (another common choice is
main). We’ll call this branch
pr_init(branch = "formidable")
#> ✓ Setting active project to '/Users/mine/Desktop/praise' #> ℹ Pulling changes from 'upstream/master' #> ✓ Creating and switching to local branch 'formidable' #> ● Use `pr_push()` to create PR.
This creates a local branch called
formidable and we switch to it (or “check it out”). Now you can work locally, making changes to files and committing them to Git.
Let’s go ahead and make the change, which is adding the word “formidable” to the
R/adjective.R file in the package. Below is the diff and the commit associated with this change.
You might spot that we made two mistakes here:
- We intended to add “formidable”, but added “formidabel” instead.
- We forgot a comma at the end of the line.
Let’s assume we didn’t actually catch these mistakes, and didn’t build and check the package, which would have revealed the missing comma. We all make mistakes.
pr_push() pushes the local change to your copy of praise on GitHub and puts you in position to make your pull request.
#> ✓ Checking that local branch 'formidable' has the changes in 'origin/formidable' #> ✓ Pushing local 'formidable' branch to 'origin/formidable' #> ✓ Create PR at link given below #> ✓ Opening URL 'https://github.com/mine-cetinkaya-rundel/praise/compare/formidable'
This launches a browser window at the URL specified in the last message, which looks like the following.
Click “Create pull request” to make the PR. After clicking you will be able to choose between draft PR and actual PR (If opening a draft PR, mark it as ready for review once you’re done, e.g. after a few more commits and one new call to
#> ✔ Opening URL 'https://github.com/rladies/praise/pull/90'
If we’re lucky, and our pull request is perfect, the maintainer will accept it, a.k.a. merge it. However, in this case, the PR still needs some work. So the package maintainer leaves us comments requesting changes.
Being somewhat new to all this, we try to address one of these comments (fix spelling) and neglect the other (forget to add the comma). We make another change and commit it.
pr_push() again to update the branch in our fork, which is automatically reflected in the PR.
#> ✔ Pushing local 'formidable' branch to 'origin:formidable' #> ✔ Setting upstream tracking branch for 'formidable' to 'origin/formidable' #> ✔ Create PR at link given below #> ✔ Opening URL 'https://github.com/mine-cetinkaya-rundel/praise/compare/formidable'
Now the reviewer gets another chance to review our changes. At this point they might choose to just make the necessary changes and push their commits into our pull request to finish things up.
To do so, the reviewer fetches the PR to their local machine with
#> ✔ Setting active project to '/Users/gaborcsardi/works/praise' #> ✔ Checking out PR 'rladies/praise/#90' (@mine-cetinkaya-rundel): 'Add "formidable" to adjectives' #> ✔ Adding remote 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel' as 'firstname.lastname@example.org:mine-cetinkaya-rundel/praise.git' #> ✔ Creating local branch 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel-formidable' #> ✔ Setting upstream tracking branch for 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel-formidable' to 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel/formidable' #> ✔ Switching to branch 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel-formidable' #> ✔ Pulling changes from GitHub PR
Fetching the PR creates a local branch for them called
mine-cetinkaya-rundel-formidable, which is a text string comprised of the GitHub username of the contributor and the name of the branch they had created for this PR.
pr_fetch() also then sets an upstream tracking branch for the local branch that got created and switches to that branch so the reviewer can make their changes on the correct branch.
Once the reviewer makes the necessary changes, such as adding the missing comma, they run
pr_push() to push their changes into our PR.
#> ✔ Checking that local branch 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel-formidable' has the changes in 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel/formidable' #> ✔ Pushing local 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel-formidable' branch to 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel:formidable' #> ✔ View PR at 'https://github.com/rladies/praise/pull/90' or call `pr_view()`
Finally, the reviewer merges our pull request on GitHub. Locally, they can run
pr_finish() to switch back to the default branch (usually named
master), pull, delete the local branch created during the process of interacting with our PR, and remove the associated remote.
#> ✔ Checking that remote branch 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel/formidable' has the changes in 'local/mine-cetinkaya-rundel-formidable' #> ✔ Switching back to 'master' branch #> ✔ Pulling changes from GitHub source repo 'origin/master' #> ✔ Deleting local 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel-formidable' branch #> ✔ Removing remote 'mine-cetinkaya-rundel'
Since the reviewer has contributed some code to our pull request, we can get that code back to our computer with
pr_pull(). This is optional here, since the full PR has already been incorporated into the default branch of the source repo (usually named
pr_pull() can be useful in PRs if there are a few rounds of alternating contributions from you and the maintainer.
#> ✓ Pulling from 'origin/formidable' #> Performing fast-forward merge, no commit needed
Finally, we can also conclude the PR process on our end with
#> ✓ Checking that remote branch 'origin/formidable' has the changes in 'formidable' #> ✓ Switching back to default branch ('master') #> ℹ Pulling changes from 'origin/master' #> ✓ Deleting local 'formidable' branch
Remember you can see how this whole PR unfolded at rladies/praise#90.
There are a few other functions in the
pr_*() family that we didn’t encounter in this PR scenario:
pr_merge_main()is used for getting changes that have occurred in the main line of development while we have been working on this PR. If you’re working in a fork, this does
git pull upstream master. If you’re making a PR from an internal branch, this does
git pull origin master. This can be useful to execute in your PR branch, if there are big changes in the project and your PR has become un-mergeable. This is also useful to execute whenever you return to the default branch (usually named
master) and, indeed,
pr_pause()includes this. This makes sure that your copy of the package is up-to-date with the source repo.
pr_pause()makes sure you’re synced with the PR, switches back to the default branch, and calls
pr_merge_main()to keep you up-to-date with the source repo. This is likely something a package maintainer reviewing numerous PRs will need to use, as they switch back and forth between reviewing/extending PRs and the main line of development on the default branch.
pr_resume()helps you resume work on a PR after you’ve spent some time with another branch checked out. If you give it no arguments, it will present an interactive choice of local branches and indicates which, if any, are associated with a PR.